Desastres naturales y desarrollo humano: Una revisión de la literatura

Autores/as

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.5377/ribcc.v7i14.12798

Palabras clave:

Desastres Naturales, Largo Plazo, Pobreza, Desempleo, Educación, Salud

Resumen

Si bien la literatura de desastres naturales ha evidenciado un amplio consenso sobre los efectos negativos que estos shocks ocasionan a corto plazo sobre el desarrollo individual, sus consecuencias de largo plazo aún son materia de debate. En este trabajo se brinda una revisión de la literatura sobre este tópico. Si bien los resultados confirman una amplia heterogeneidad en la literatura empírica (según el tipo de desastre, país o región de análisis y horizonte temporal considerado), la mayor parte de los trabajos considerados tiende a reportar hallazgos consistentes con la idea de persistencia en el largo plazo de los efectos negativos. Así, surge que la exposición a desastres tiende a incrementar persistentemente la probabilidad de ser pobre o estar desempleado, de tener un bajo logro educativo, bajos ingresos o un deteriorado estatus de salud.  De los hallazgos de esta revisión surgen cuatro recomendaciones de política. Primero, cada grupo de desastres provoca efectos diferentes y esto debe ser considerado en la implementación de acciones de preparación y mitigación. Segundo, las embarazadas y niños en sus primeros meses de vida (especialmente en los primeros 1000 días) deben ser especialmente protegidos, dado que los efectos de largo plazo se concentran en este subgrupo. Tercero, debido a que una mejora en la infraestructura básica reduce el riesgo de desastre, las acciones de preparación y mitigación frente a desastres deben entenderse en forma complementaria a aquellas de reducción de la pobreza. Cuarto, la política pública debe incorporar explícitamente la dimensión de género.

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Biografía del autor/a

F. A. I. González, Universidad Nacional de Misiones, Argentina

Investigador de la Facultad de Ciencias Económicas de la Universidad Nacional de Misiones (FCE-UNaM) y Instituto de Investigaciones Económicas y Sociales del Sur (IIESS-UNS-CONICET) San Andrés 800, Bahía Blanca-Argentina.

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Publicado

2021-11-15

Cómo citar

González, F. A. I. (2021). Desastres naturales y desarrollo humano: Una revisión de la literatura. Rev. Iberoam. Bioecon. Cambio Clim., 7(14), 1666–1675. https://doi.org/10.5377/ribcc.v7i14.12798

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Sección

Gestión Integral de Riesgo​

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